Earlier this month, the Assam Cupboard introduced that Gaon Buras (village headman), village-level functionaries of the district administration, will henceforth be known as ‘Gaon Pradhans’. Whereas it’s but to be notified, the transfer has been criticised by a number of in Assam as an imposition on the tradition and language of the state.

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A colonial time period

The establishment of Gaon Bura in Assam dates again to the colonial period, when the British appointed the oldest individual within the village as the top, who would oversee issues regarding land and income in a specific space. The place would often go to the oldest, most educated man who had good private ties with everybody in a village, or a cluster of small villages. In Arunachal Pradesh, too, the Gaon Buras (and Buris) are a very powerful village-level functionaries.

Publish-independence, the federal government continued with the establishment and made the Gaon Bura a proper a part of the Assam Income and Catastrophe Administration division, rising his duties, and finally introducing a small honorarium for the position.

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Prasanta Kumar Bora, who’s a member of the All Assam Gaon Bura Affiliation and a Gaon Bura of Mazgaon village close to Tezpur, stated that the position instructions respect, and the duties initially included recording births, deaths, income assortment, settling disputes, amongst others.

In accordance with Dr Jahnabi Gogoi, a Dibrugarh College professor who specialises within the medieval historical past of Assam, whereas the buranjis, (Ahom-era chronicles) shouldn’t have the phrase Gaon Bura, the idea existed in some kind even within the pre-colonial interval too.

Over time, the Gaon Bura turned central to rural, village life and inevitably featured in quite a few writings —together with novels and performs — of the nineteenth century. Amongst them is Assamese litterateur Padmanath Gohain Baruah’s in style social play known as ‘Gaon Bura’.

Present position

In accordance with Bora, whereas it was earlier a hereditary place (handed on from father to son), in the present day it’s a sought-after place that undergoes a aggressive recruitment interview held by the district administration.

A Gaon Bura is paid a month-to-month honorarium of Rs 9,000 (elevated twice in the course of the BJP authorities in Assam — from Rs 4000 and Rs 6000) and in 2020. One must be a Class X cross, and as per the brand new Cupboard resolution, a minimal of 30 years of age (higher restrict 65) to use for the submit.

There are about 6,000 Gaon Buras in Assam, which embrace a number of ladies too. Bora stated that girls who have been ‘Gaon Buras’ weren’t quite common (about 3 per cent) and they might take over, if their husbands died.

“They’re the eyes, nostril, ear of the district administration on the village degree,” stated an official from the state income division, including that they served as a bridge between the district administration and the village.

Numerous duties are bestowed on the Gaon Bura, starting with sustaining a inhabitants register of the village, sustaining land data, serving to mauzadar in income assortment, notifying circle officers if there’s any encroachment on land, serving to police examine crime, amongst others.

In recent times, their position has turn out to be extra multifarious — whether or not it entails distribution of reduction materials throughout pure disasters like flood, sustaining a log of Covid-19 instances within the village, organising vaccination camps, functioning as booth-level officers throughout elections, amongst others.

“One other vital obligation of the Gaon Bura is that he/she is the one who can problem a ‘Gaon Bura certificates’, a certificates that determines your everlasting residency in a specific village,” stated Bora. Through the updation of the Nationwide Register of Residents (NRC), the Gaon Bura certificates turned essential for ladies (who had no different paperwork) to determine linkages with their husbands and fogeys.


The federal government has reasoned that quite a few younger males (and girls) turn out to be Gaon Buras, and thus, the phrase ‘Bura’ (that means previous in Assamese) is not applicable. In accordance with Karabi Deka Hazarika, a retired professor of Assamese of Dibrugarh College, even when ‘Bura’ actually means previous in Assamese, the phrase has extra variations. “Even in rural life, essentially the most senior member of the household (even when he is probably not significantly previous in age) is named the ‘Bura’ of the home. It might additionally imply sensible, educated.” she stated, including that it didn’t make sense to alter it to Pradhan due to the age issue. “It’s a stunning, traditionally wealthy phrase of the Assamese language,” she stated.

Bora agreed that the phrase was historic however identified that over time, it had additionally come for use with ridicule. “Typically, folks use the phrase sarcastically to indicate somebody who’s gradual, or silly. In that method, Gaon Pradhan instructions extra respect,” he stated.

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